~ museum quality, handcrafted, custom-built wooden model ships ~
DD-710 Gearing Class Destroyers
Includes DDR Frank Knox Class, DDK Carpenter Class, and DDE Basilone Classes
- circa differs for the different model examples shown -
The Gearing Class was basically a stretched version of the Allen M. Sumner Class. In an attempt to increase the speed and the range of the Sumners, a 14 foot section was added amidships to increase fuel capacity. It also made for a more favorable length-to-beam ratio. The class was followed by the Forrest Sherman Class.
DD-710 USS Gearing - lead destroyer of its class - was launched February 18th, 1945 at Kearny, NY. The destroyer was named for three generations of naval men - Henry Chalfant Gearing, Henry Chalfant Gearing, Jr. and Henry Chalfant Gearing III - the latter being lost with his ship when it was torpedoed and sunk in the Solomons in 1942. USS Gearing - sponsored by Mrs. Thomas M. Foley (daughter of Commander Gearing) - was commissioned May 3rd, 1945 and stricken July 2nd, 1973.
Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM)
Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization - or FRAM - was a program to extend the useful lives of WWII era US Navy ships - specifically destroyers - during the time of the Eisenhower Administration who was seeking major cuts in US defense spending at the same time that the Navy faced a growing strategic threat from the Russian submarine force. With the Soviets having over 300 fast-attack submarines in service by 1957 and forecasted to pose an ominous threat with long range torpedoes by the 1960s, the US Navy - at the helm of Admiral Burke - found a solution to the problem in a combination of two "stand-off" weapon systems called ASROC and DASH.
ASROC was an ASW (anti-submarine warfare) system for a 1-5 mile range that launched a solid-fuel rocket which carried a torpedo or depth-bomb payload. DASH was a 900 lb coaxial drone helicopter with an ASW range of 22 miles. While both ASROC and DASH delivered the same weapon (MK-44 Torpedo) DASH was special in that it could be re-called if the target turned out to be friendly.
FRAM was not a simple process as it involved reconstruction of three different classes of destroyers, three different classes of Destroyer Escorts, and the Destroyer Tenders that would keep those destroyers and destroyer escorts armed and supplied. Occurring in the late-1950s to mid-1960s, the rebuilding of the ships was not only different per class of ships, but the installation (known as FRAM 1) or just a modernization of the ship (known as FRAM 2) could be different within a specific class as well. Furthermore, while many ships received FRAM, not all received DASH while others received DASH and ASROC. Finally there were some further differences from ship to ship.
Gearing Destroyers and FRAM
Many Gearing destroyers had been earlier modified for specific missions (i.e. Radar Picket or DDR Frank Knox Class, Hunter-Killer destroyers or DDK Carpenter Class, and Anti-Submarine Warfare or DDE Basilone Class). FRAM was different for all variants. Eventually all but 3 of the 98 Gearings that were commissioned got FRAM rehabilitation or modernization.
FRAM 1: Developed primarily for the Gearing class, it was a complete reconstruction of the ship that extended the life of a destroyer by 8 years and was much more than FRAM 2. FRAM 1 included the rebuilding of the superstructure, rehabilitated the engines and electronics and installed ASROC, DASH, SQS-23 Sonar, new radars for air search, surface search and height-finding, and 2 triple Mk-32 torpedo launchers. FRAM 1 required the destroyer to lose one of its twin 5" caliber gun mounts. The FRAM 1 reconstruction was somewhat different for the top deck arrangement of the Gearings resulting in two distinct variants.
FRAM 1 "A": Removal of aft twin 5" caliber gun mount (Mount 53). Group A ships also received two Hedgehogs fitted on each side of the bridge at the O-1 level and had the Mk-32 triple torpedo launchers aft of the second stack.
FRAM 1 "B": Removal of the second twin 5" caliber
gun mount (Mount 52, just in front of the bridge). In place of mount 52,
a practice 5-inch reloading machine was installed and the Mk-32 triple torpedo
launchers were placed aft of the loader. Group B ships also had more ASROC
+ torpedo storage area next to the port side of the DASH hangar. There are
distinct differences in this group of ships with some having taller masts
FRAM 2: Developed primarily for the Sumner Class, it did include most versions of Gearing destroyers and was mostly a modernization program. FRAM 2 extended the life of a destroyer by about 5 years, installed DASH, Mk-32 torpedo launchers, new air search, surface search and height-finding radars and variable depth sonar (VDS). There are distinct differences in this group of ships as regards the new 3" gun mounts being placed either "inline" or "offset".
FRANK KNOX CLASS Radar Picket - DDR variant
Another 12 ships were converted in 1952 after being
first commissioned as original Gearing Class destroyers:
In 1960 all DDRs were reconverted back to DDs except the Duncan, Ernest G. Small, Frank Knox, Goodrich, Kenneth D. Bailey and Turner. Those 6 ships stayed as DDRs and underwent FRAM II conversion in 1960-1961. The remaining 30 ships that converted back to DD instead got a special FRAM 1 modernization later which included DASH. (See bottom table)
All DDRs when built or converted had the new SPS-8 radar installed with the antenna located aft of the No. 2 stack on the after superstructure as the antenna was too heavy for the tripod mast to support. At the same time the original SP radar was replaced with the Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN).
When FRAM I and II conversions began to occur in 1960, the radar antennas were again displaced. This time they were removed and replaced with new antennas on top of a new main mast forward of the number 1 stack that replaced the original tri-pod mast the ship had originally. This occurred on all 36 vessels of the Frank Knox Class. On the new main mast was the AN/SPS-10 and AN/SPS-40 radar sweep antennas. On top of the DASH Hangar (except for the 6 remaining DDRs) were installed the new ECM antennas. Of special note, 3 of the remaining DDRs received the very large SPS-30 height finding radar which had a 200+ mile range.
CARPENTER CLASS Hunter/Killer - DDK variant
DDK-764 Lloyd Thomas
The eight ships remained rated as DDKs until March 4, 1950 when the DDK and DDE types merged and they were then rated as DDEs. All eight vessels were reclassified back to DD on June 30, 1962.
The DDK conversion, which consisted of special equipment to locate, track and destroy enemy submarines, consisted of the MK-100 Underwater Fire control system to coordinate the firing of the MK-23 torpedo launchers using MK-35 or MK-37 homing torpedoes. The MK-56 fire control system controlled the MK-15 trainable Hedgehog weapons projector (Weapon B) which was installed where usually the second forward twin 5-inch gun mount would be located (Mount 52) on a standard Gearing.
These ships were eventually equipped with the MK-108 Weapon A which fired a fast-sinking 250-lb charge approximately 1000 yards. Combined with the latest radar of the time, the Carpenter Class ships had the highest ASW capability of any destroyer class prior to FRAM . While Hedgehog was eventually removed prior to FRAM as Weapon A was more effective, the Carpenter Class set the strategy for greater stand-off weapons which would be expanded in the FRAM program.
BASILONE CLASS Anti-Submarine Warfare - DDE
All seven ships underwent FRAM 1B reconstruction and by July 1962 all had been reclassified back as DDs. All ships kept their most forward 5 inch mount (Mount 51), lost the second mount (Mount 52) behind it and kept their aft 5 inch mount (Mount 53). In place of Mount 52, a practice 5 inch reloading machine was installed with the MK-32 triple torpedo launchers aft of the loader. The ships also received greater ASROC and torpedo storage areas next to the port side of the DASH hangar.
LIST of CLASSIFICATION CHANGES and
FRAM MODERNIZATION for all Gearing Class Destroyers
Note: Ships previously re-configured as DDR, DDK or DDE did not receive a "standard" FRAM 1A, or FRAM 1B, or FRAM 2
but rather got a special FRAM fitted to their different configurations existing at the time.
EDD = experimental destroyer (3 ships total - none received a FRAM, the other special classes below all did)
DDR = radar picket destroyer (Gearing destroyer re-configured into the Frank Knox Class, 1945 - 1953)
DDK = hunter/ killer destroyer (Gearing destroyer re-configured into the Carpenter Class, April 1949)
DDE = dedicated ASW destroyer (Gearing destroyer re-configured into the Basilone Class, 1950)
|DDK||DDE||Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM)|
|FRAM 1A||FRAM 1B||FRAM 2|
|DD-711||Eugene A. Greene||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
tested advances in missile technology (DD-712 > DDG-712 > DDG-1)
|DD-713||Kenneth D. Bailey||built as DDR, stayed DDR||-||-||no DASH + VDS|
|DD-714||William R. Rush||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-715||William M. Wood||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-717||Theodore E. Chandler||-||1B||-|
|DD-742||Frank Knox||built as DDR, stayed DDR||-||-||no DASH + VDS|
|DD-743||Southerland||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-763||William C. Lawe||-||1B||-|
|DD-764||Lloyd Thomas||DDK||DDE||FRAM 1 - DASH, no ASROC, kept aft gun||-|
|DD-765||Keppler||DDK||DDE||FRAM 1 - DASH, no ASROC, kept aft gun||-|
|DD-766||Landsdale||not completed, bow section to DD-844|
|DD-767||Seymore O. Owens||not completed, bow section toDDR-838|
|DD-769||Abner Read||not completed|
|DD-784||McKean||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-786||Richard B. Anderson||1A||-||-|
|DD-787||James E. Kyes||-||1B||-|
|DD-805||Chevalier||converted to DDR, back to DD||-||-||DASH + VDS|
|DD-806||Higbee||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-807||Benner||converted to DDR, back to DD||-||-||DASH + VDS|
|DD-808||Dennis J. Buckley||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-809 to DD-816 (not named)||cancelled|
|DD-817||Corry||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-822||Robert H. McCard||-||1B||-|
|DD-823||Samuel B. Roberts||-||1B||-|
|DD-825||Carpenter||DDK||DDE||FRAM 1 - DASH + ASROC, lost aft gun|
|DD-827||Robert A. Owens||DDK||DDE||FRAM 1 - DASH + ASROC, lost aft gun|
experimental steam propulsion
|DD-829||Myles C. Fox||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-830||Everett F. Larson||built as DDR, stayed DDR||-||-||DASH + VDS|
|DD-831||Goodrich||converted to DDR, back to DD||-||-||no DASH + VDS|
|DD-832||Hanson||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-833||Herbert J. Thomas||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-834||Turner||built as DDR, stayed DDR||-||-||no DASH + VDS|
|DD-835||Charles P. Cecil||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1,includes DASH||-|
|DD-836||George K. MacKenzie||-||1B||-|
|DD-838||Ernest G. Small||built as DDR, stayed DDR||-||-||no DASH + VDS|
|DD-842||Fiske||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-847||Robert L. Wilson||DDE||1B|
|DD-848||Witek (EDD)||experimentalpump jet propulsion|
|DD-849||Richard E. Kraus||-||1B||-|
|DD-850||Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr.||-||1B||-|
|DD-852||Leonard F. Mason||-||1B||-|
|DD-853||Charles H. Roan||-||1B||-|
|DD-854 to DD-856||cancelled|
|DD-858||Fred T. Berry||DDK||DDE||FRAM 2 - DASH, no ASROC, kept aft gun|
|DD-859||Norris||DDK||DDE||FRAM 2 - DASH, no ASROC, kept aft gun|
|DD-860||McCaffery||DDK||DDE||FRAM 2 - DASH, no ASROC, kept aft gun|
|DD-861||Harwood||DDK||DDE||FRAM 2 - DASH, no ASROC, kept aft gun|
|DD-863||Steinaker||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-864||Harold J. Ellison||-||1B||-|
|DD-865||Charles R. Ware||-||1B||-|
|DD-869||Arnold J. Isbell||-||1B||-|
|DD-870||Fechteler||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-873||Hawkins||converted to DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-874||Duncan||built as DDR, stayed DDR||-||-||no DASH + VDS|
|DD-875||Henry W. Tucker||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-876||Rogers||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-877||Perkins||built as DDR, back to DD||-||-||DASH + VDS|
|DD-878||Vesole||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-879||Leary||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-880||Dyess||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-881||Bordelon||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-882||Furse||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-883||Newman K. Perry||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-884||Floyd B. Parks||-||1B||-|
|DD-885||John R. Craig||-||-||FRAM 2|
|DD-888||Stickell||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-889||O'Hare||built as DDR, back to DD||FRAM 1, includes DASH||-|
|DD-891 to DD-926 (not named)||cancelled|
© 2002-2017 All Wood Ships - All Rights Reserved